Nature Reviews Earth & EnvironmentにReview論文が掲載されました

  • August 23
  • Contents
  • Manuscript
  •  Abstract
    • Earthquake-triggered giant tsunamis can cause catastrophic disasters to coastal populations, ecosystems and infrastructure on scales over 1000s km. In particular, the scale and tragedy of the 2004 Indian Ocean (about 230,000 fatalities) and 2011 Japan (22,000 fatalities) tsunamis prompted global action to mitigate the impacts of future disasters. In this Review, we summarize the progress in understanding tsunami generation, propagation, and monitoring, with a particular focus on developments in rapid early warning and long-term hazard assessment. Dense arrays of ocean-bottom pressure gauges in offshore regions provide real-time data of incoming tsunami wave heights, which combined with advances in numerical and analog modeling, have enabled the development of rapid tsunami forecasts for near-shore regions (within 3 minutes of an earthquake in Japan). Such early warning is essential to give local communities time to evacuate and save lives. However, long-term assessments and mitigation of tsunami risk from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) are also needed so that comprehensive disaster prevention planning and structural tsunami countermeasures can be implemented by governments, authorities, and local populations. Future work should focus on improving tsunami inundation, damage risk, evacuation modeling and reducing the uncertainties of PTHA associated with the unpredictable nature of megathrust earthquake occurrence and rupture characteristics.
  • 要旨(和訳)
    • 地震によって引き起こされる巨大津波は、沿岸の住民や生態系、インフラに壊滅的な災害をもたらします。特に、2004年のインド洋大津波(死者23万人)と2011年の日本海大津波(死者2万2千人)により、津波被害を軽減するための様々な研究展開が行われました。この論文では、津波の発生、伝播、モニタリング、特に早期警報システムと長期的なハザード評価評価の研究開発に焦点を当てて、近年の研究成果をレビューしています。